RISK Laboratory




The RISK laboratory studies risk-taking behavior in young adults using a multiple-level-of-analysis perspective, spanning from genes to behavior and the social environment. We are particularly interested in examining integrative pathways to the outcomes of ADHD, conduct problems, and drug abuse. We also have a particular focus on better understanding sex differences in these pathways. For example, recent, emerging pilot data coming out of our laboratory suggests that young adult women are at increased risk for binge drinking at ovulation due to rapidly rising levels of estradiol, while women are at increased risk for inattentive ADHD symptoms just past ovulation due to rapidly declining levels of estradiol.

Aside from this recent young adult project, we have a number of other areas of active research inquiry that span from the prenatal period through young adulthood using the same multi-faced approach. Some recent areas of work that are currently ongoing in our laboratory, using archived and international data sets and advanced up-and-coming statistical and mathematical approaches, include:

-- development of more sophisticated approaches to cross-informant integration in assessment of ADHD across the lifespan

-- evaluation of the utility of personalizing treatment of ADHD based on child trait and cognitive profiles

-- identification of biological, temperament, and cognitive early developmental precursors to disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) from the prenatal period through preschool

-- determination of trait and symptom markers of common patterns of comorbidity from preschool into young adulthood

-- characterization of developmental change in pathways to DBD symptoms across development






Patrick Goh, M.A. – pat.goh@uky.edu

Pat is a fifth-year doctoral student in the RISK lab. He completed his undergraduate work at the University of California; San Diego and received his M.A. in Psychology from San Diego State University working with Dr. Sarah Mattson. Pat is interested in understanding why individuals with ADHD often develop comorbid disorders, particularly depression and anxiety. Currently, he is exploring the utility of advanced statistical techniques like network analysis and machine learning to identify symptom constellations and related risk markers that "bridge the gap" between ADHD and depression. In the long term, he plans to integrate his findings into current theoretical models to inform a more comprehensive understanding of the nature of co-occurrence and contribute to the development of improved screening and intervention tools.

Representative Publications/Presentations:

Goh, P. K., & Martel, M. M. (in press). Commentary: extending longitudinal network approaches - a reflection on Funkhouser et al. (2020). Journal of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry.

Goh, P. K., Lee, C. A., Martel, M. M., Fillmore, M. T., Derefinko, K. J., & Lynam, D. R. (2020). A network approach to the UPPS-P model of impulsive personality: stability and validity across young adulthood. Journal of Personality. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12572

Goh, P. K., Martel, M. M., & Barkley, R. A. (2020). Clarifying ADHD and sluggish cognitive tempo item relations with impairment: a network analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 48, 1047-1061. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-020-00655-2

Goh, P. K., Lee, C. A., Bansal, P. S., Aguerrevere, L. E., Rucker, A. T., & Martel, M. M. (2020). Interpretability and external validity of a bifactor model of ADHD in young adults: an assessment of general and specific factors. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 42, 222-236. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-019-09774-7

Goh, P. K., Lee, C. A., Martel, M. M., Karalunas, S. L., & Nigg, J. T. (2020). Subgroups of childhood ADHD based on temperament traits and cognition: concurrent and predictive validity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-020-00668-x

Martel, M. M., Goh, P. K., Smith, T. E., & Lee, C. A. (2018). Developmental pathways. In M. Martel (Ed.), Developmental pathways to disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.




Pevitr Bansal, M.S. – Pevitr.bansal@uky.edu

Pev is a fourth-year doctoral student in the RISK lab. He completed his undergraduate degree at Penn State University – Abington College and his M.S. at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine. Prior to enrolling as a graduate student at UK in Fall 2017, he worked in the Department of Psychiatry at the Penn State Hershey Medical Center. Pev is broadly interested in the factors that contribute to the heterogeneity of conduct problems (CP; e.g., defiance, aggression, property destruction), with a particular interest in the role of affect (e.g., irritability, callous-unemotional [CU] traits). His current programmatic line of research has explored how these factors impact the assessment and treatment of CP. In the long term, he aims to apply his findings to develop (a) more accurate assessments for CP, particularly for youth with concurrent CU traits and (b) more refined and personalized treatments for youth with CP.

Representative Publications/Presentations:

Waxmonsky, J. G., Baweja, R., Bansal, P. S., & Waschbusch, D. A. (Under Review). A review of the evidence base for the psychosocial treatment of emotion dysregulation in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Bansal, P. S., Babinski, D. E., Waxmonsky, J. G., & Waschbusch, D. A. (Under Review). Psychometric properties of parent ratings on the Inventory of Callous Unemotional Traits in a nationally representative sample of 5 to 12-year-olds. Assessment.

Bansal, P. S., Goh, P. K., Lee, C. A., & Martel, M. M. (2020). Conceptualizations of callous – unemotional traits in preschool through confirmatory factor and network analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 48(4), 1 – 12.

Bansal, P. S., Haas, S. M., Willoughby, M. T., Coles, E. K., Pelham Jr., W. E., & Waschbusch, D. A. (2019). A pilot study of emotional response to time-out in children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits. Psychological Reports. 10.1177/0033294119884014

Bansal, P. S., Waschbusch, D. A., Haas, S. M., Babinski, D. E., King, S., Andrade, B. F., & Willoughby, M. T. (2019). Effects of intensive behavioral treatment on children with varying levels of conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits. Behavior Therapy. 50(1), 1 – 14.



Ashley Eng, M.A. – ashley.eng@uky.edu

Ashley is a second-year doctoral student in the RISK lab. She completed her undergraduate work at Stonehill College and received her M.A. in Psychological Science from the Catholic University of America working with Dr. Brendan Rich. Ashley is broadly interested in the relationship between ADHD and hormones.